When it comes to academic writing, mastering the Harvard style bibliography is a crucial skill that every scholar should possess. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the intricacies of formatting a Harvard style bibliography, providing you with the tools to create impeccable references for your academic work.
Understanding Harvard Style Formatting
The Harvard style requires meticulous attention to detail, and the first step is understanding the formatting guidelines. The reference list, often interchangeably referred to as a bibliography, is alphabetized by the author's last name. The entries are organized with a hanging indent, providing a neat and professional appearance.
Proper Citation of Books
Creating references for books demands precision. The author's last name and initial, publication year, book title, and publishing details must be presented with accuracy.
Example: Coetzee, J. M. (2000) Disgrace. London: Vintage.
Crafting References for Book Chapters
When citing a chapter within a book, it is crucial to acknowledge both the author of the chapter and the editor of the book.
Example: Greenblatt, S. (2010) 'The traces of Shakespeare’s life', in De Grazia, M. and Wells, S. (eds.) The new Cambridge companion to Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–14.
Translated Books and Editions
For translated books, include the translator's name without inversion. Additionally, specify the edition for books with multiple editions.
Example: Saramago, J. (1997) Blindness. Translated from the Portuguese by G. Gontiero. London: Vintage.
Danielson, D. (ed.) (1999) The Cambridge companion to Milton. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Journal Articles: Print and Online
Journal articles require meticulous citation, including the article title, journal name, volume and issue (if applicable), and page range. For online articles, the DOI or URL and access date are essential components.
Example (Print): Maceachen, D. B. (1950) 'Wilkie Collins and British law', Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 5(2), pp. 121–139.
Example (Online with DOI): Adamson, P. (2019) 'American history at the foreign office: Exporting the silent epic Western', Film History, 31(2), pp. 32–59. doi:10.2979/filmhistory.31.2.02.
Example (Online without DOI): Theroux, A. (1990) 'Henry James’s Boston', The Iowa Review, 20(2), pp. 158–165. Available at: (Accessed: 13 February 2020).
Navigating Web Sources: Pages, Articles, and Social Media
When referencing web sources, precision is paramount. Whether citing a general web page, online article, or social media post, follow the guidelines diligently.
Example (Web Page): Google (2019) Google terms of service. Available at: (Accessed: 29 April 2020).
Example (Online Article): Rakich, N. (2020) 'How does Biden stack up to past Democratic nominees?', FiveThirtyEight, 28 April. Available at: (Accessed: 29 April 2020).
Example (Social Media Post): Dorsey, J. [@jack] (2018) We’re committing Twitter to help increase the collective health, openness, and civility of public conversation... [Twitter] 1 March. Available at: (Accessed: 29 April 2020).
Multimedia: Images and Videos
Even when dealing with multimedia, precision in citation is paramount. Whether referencing an image or a video, follow the specified guidelines.
Example (Image): Bosch, H. (1482) The last judgement [Triptych]. Groeningemuseum, Bruges.
Example (Video): Vox (2020) The big lesson from South Korea’s coronavirus response. 10 April. Available at: (Accessed: 29 April 2020).
Newspapers and Magazines: Print and Online
Finally, for newspaper and magazine articles, acknowledge the publication details and, for online articles, provide the URL and access date.
Example (Newspaper Article): Butler, S. (2020) 'Women’s fashion manufacturer to make reusable gowns for NHS', The Guardian, 28 April. Available at: (Accessed: 29 April 2020).
Example (Magazine Article): Newman, J. (2020) 'For autistic youths entering adulthood, a new world of challenges awaits', National Geographic, (May), pp. 20–24.
Frequently Asked Questions
Difference between a Bibliography and a Reference List
While often used interchangeably, a reference list includes sources cited in the text, whereas a bibliography may encompass sources consulted during research but not cited.
Citing Sources with Multiple Authors
In Harvard referencing, up to three authors are listed, with four or more authors shortened to the first author followed by 'et al.'
Citing Multiple Sources by the Same Author in the Same Year
To distinguish between sources by the same author published in the same year, add a different letter after the year for each source.
Creating a Hanging Indent in Word
To create a hanging indent in Word, highlight all entries, click on the 'Paragraph' tab, and select 'Hanging' under 'Special' in the 'Indentation' section.
In conclusion, mastering the intricacies of the Harvard style bibliography is essential for academic excellence. Use this guide as your compass to navigate the nuances of proper citation, ensuring your scholarly work reflects the highest standards of precision and professionalism.