In the realm of academic writing, adhering to the American Psychological Association (APA) format is paramount for creating well-organized and polished research papers. This guide aims to provide an exhaustive understanding of APA formatting, ensuring your citations stand out and meet the highest standards.
Basics of APA Format
The foundation of a well-crafted APA citation lies in meticulous attention to detail. Start your list of works cited on a new page titled "References," centered at the top. Alphabetize entries by the author's last name, using a letter-by-letter system, ignoring spaces and punctuation. If the author is unknown, alphabetize by the title.
For dates, spell out months in the text, abbreviating in the list of works cited. Choose either day-month-year or month-day-year style, maintaining consistency. Utilize hanging indents for all citations, ensuring a clean and professional appearance.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
Follow APA guidelines for capitalization, especially in titles. Use sentence-style capitalization for books or articles, capitalizing only the first word of a title and subtitle. For periodical titles, capitalize each major word. If there are more than six authors, list only the first one followed by "et al."
Place the publication date in parentheses after the author's name and conclude with a period. Never italicize, underline, or use quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer ones.
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: A history of the heroes of the imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Author's last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Website or Webpage
Online periodical: Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL.
Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom among us. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website:
In conclusion, mastering APA format is not just about compliance; it's about presenting your work in a way that reflects precision and professionalism. By following these guidelines, you're not just citing sources; you're elevating the standard of your academic writing.